The development of robotics is an important symbol and embodiment of a country’s high-tech level and industrial automation. Robots are becoming more and more widely used in current production and life, and they are increasingly being replaced by people.
The development of robotics is an important symbol and embodiment of a country’s high-tech level and industrial automation. Robots are becoming more and more widely used in current production and life, and are playing an increasingly important role in replacing people. With the rapid advancement of computers, microelectronics, and information technology, the development speed of robot technology is getting faster and faster, the intelligence is getting higher and higher, and the application range has been greatly expanded. In the fields of marine development, space exploration, industrial and agricultural production, military, social services, entertainment, etc., robots have broad development space and application prospects. Robots are moving in the direction of intelligence and diversification.
First, the definition of intelligent robot
The reason why intelligent robots are called intelligent robots is because they have a fairly developed “brain.” What works in the brain is the central processor, which has a direct connection to the person who operates it. The main thing is that such a computer can perform actions arranged according to purpose. Because of this, we say that such robots are real robots, although their appearance may be different.
The so-called intelligent robot is widely understood, and its most impressive impression is a unique “living thing” for self-control. In fact, the main organs of this self-control “living creature” are not as subtle and complicated as real people. Intelligent robots have a variety of internal information sensors and external information sensors such as sight, hearing, touch and smell. In addition to having a susceptor, it also has an effector as a means of acting on the surrounding environment. This is the muscles, or self-propelled motors, which move the hands, feet, long nose, tentacles, etc.
Second, the main elements of intelligent robots
- It is a sensory element used to recognize the state of the surrounding environment; sensory elements include non-contact sensors that can sense vision, proximity, distance, etc., and contact sensors that can sense, pressure, touch, and the like. These elements are essentially the equivalent of human eyes, nose, ears, etc. Their functions can use electromechanical elements such as cameras, image sensors, ultrasonic transmitters, lasers, conductive rubber, piezoelectric elements, pneumatic components, and stroke switches. The device is implemented.
- It is a moving element that reacts to the outside world; for sports elements, the intelligent robot needs to have a non-orbital moving mechanism to adapt to different geographical environments such as flats, steps, walls, stairs, ramps, etc. . Their functions can be accomplished with moving mechanisms such as wheels, tracks, feet, suction cups, air cushions, and the like. In the process of motion, the mobile mechanism should be controlled in real time. This control must include not only position control, but also force control, position and force mixing control, expansion rate control, etc.
- It is a factor of thinking, and thinks about what kind of action to use based on the information obtained by the sensory elements. The thinking elements of intelligent robots are the key to the three elements and the essential elements that people must give to robots. Thinking elements include intellectual activities such as judgment, logic analysis, and understanding. These intellectual activities are essentially an information processing process, and computers are the primary means of accomplishing this process.
Third, the key technology of intelligent robots
- Multi-sensor information fusion
Multi-sensor information fusion technology is a hot research topic in recent years. It combines control theory, signal processing, artificial intelligence, probability and statistics to provide robots with tasks in a variety of complex, dynamic, uncertain and unknown environments. A technical solution.
2, navigation and positioning
In the robot system, autonomous navigation is a core technology and a key and difficult problem in the field of robot research.
- Path planning
Path planning technology is an important branch of robotics research. The optimal path planning is based on one or some optimization criteria (such as the lowest working cost, the shortest walking route, the shortest walking time, etc.), and finds a path from the initial state to the target state in the robot workspace, which can avoid obstacles. Optimal path.
4, robot vision
The visual system is an important part of the autonomous robot, and is generally composed of a camera, an image acquisition card, and a computer. The work of the robot vision system includes image acquisition, image processing and analysis, output and display. The core tasks are feature extraction, image segmentation and image recognition.
5, intelligent control
With the development of robotics, traditional control theory has exposed shortcomings for the inability to accurately resolve the physical objects of modeling and the ill-conditioned processes with insufficient information. In recent years, many scholars have proposed various robotic intelligent control systems.
6, man-machine interface technology
The research goal of intelligent robots is not to completely replace people. Complex intelligent robot systems rely on computers to control the current difficulties. Even if they can, they are not practical because they lack the ability to adapt to the environment. Intelligent robot systems can not completely exclude the role of people, but need to achieve system control by means of human-machine coordination. Therefore, a well-designed human-machine interface has become one of the key issues in the research of intelligent robots.
Fourth, the main classification of intelligent robots
1, classified by function
(1) Sensing robot
Also externally controlled robots. There is no intelligent unit on the body of the robot. There are only actuators and sensing mechanisms. It has sensor information (including visual, auditory, tactile, proximity, force and infrared, ultrasound and laser, etc.) for sensor information processing and control. The ability to operate. Controlled by an external computer, the robots currently used in the small group competition of the Robot World Cup belong to this type.
(2) Autonomous robot
After design and production, the robot can automatically complete various anthropomorphic tasks in various environments without human intervention. The autonomous robot has modules for sensing, processing, decision making, and execution on the ontology, and can independently operate and handle problems like an autonomous person. Many countries attach great importance to the research of fully autonomous mobile robots. The research of intelligent robots began in the early 1960s. After decades of development, intelligent robots based on sensory control (also known as second-generation robots) have reached the practical application stage. Intelligent robots based on knowledge control (also known as autonomous robots) Or the next generation of robots) has also made great progress, and a variety of prototypes have been developed.
(3) Interactive robot
The robot performs a man-machine dialogue with an operator or programmer through a computer system to realize control and operation of the robot. Although it has partial processing and decision-making functions, it can independently implement functions such as trajectory planning and simple obstacle avoidance, but it is subject to external control.
2, classified by intelligence level
(1) Industrial robot
It can only work rigidly according to the procedures prescribed by people. No matter what changes in external conditions, they can’t adjust the program, that is, the work done. If you want to change the work done by the robot, it must be changed by the person, so it is not smart.
(2) Primary intelligent robot
Have the ability to feel, recognize, reason and judge like a person. According to the changes of external conditions, the program can be modified within a certain range, that is, it can adapt to changes in external conditions to adjust accordingly. However, the principle of modifying the program is pre-specified by the person, and this primary intelligent robot has certain intelligence.
(3) Advanced intelligent robot
With the ability to sense, identify, reason and judge, it is also possible to modify the program within a certain range according to changes in external conditions. The difference is that the principle of modifying the program is not prescribed by the person, but the principle that the robot itself obtains the modified procedure by learning and summing up the experience. So its intelligence is higher than the first intelligent robot. This kind of robot has a certain automatic planning ability and can arrange its own work. This kind of robot can be used as a high-level self-discipline robot without the care of people and completely independent work. This kind of robot is also beginning to be practical.
Fifth, the main types of intelligent robots today
- Industrial production robot
At this stage, the concept of “machine substitution” has been increasingly favored by production and processing enterprises. Industrial robots are constructed by manipulators (mechanical bodies), controllers, servo drive systems and detection and sensing devices. An electromechanical integrated production equipment that simulates human operation, automatic control, reprogrammable, and can perform various operations in three dimensions. It is especially suitable for flexible production of multiple varieties and variable batches. It plays an important role in stabilizing, improving product quality, improving production efficiency, improving labor conditions and rapidly updating products. The robot does not replace manual labor in a simple sense, but a kind of anthropomorphic electromechanical device that combines human characteristics and machine characteristics. It has a quick response and analysis and judgment ability to the environment, and the machine can be used for a long time. The ability to work continuously, with high precision and resistance to harsh environments is, in a sense, also a product of the evolutionary process of the machine. It is an important production and service equipment for industrial and non-industrial industries, and is also indispensable in the field of advanced manufacturing technology. Automation equipment.
- Japan plans to use robots at special disaster sites
The technology is mainly for nuclear power plant accidents, NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) terrorist attacks and so on. The remote control robot is equipped with a belt that can measure the amount of radiation, bacteria, chemicals, toxic gases, etc. around the site and pass the data to the command center. The commander can select less polluting routes based on the data. Field personnel will carry out activities with machines that measure data such as radiation, breathing, heart rate, and body temperature. These data will be immediately transmitted to the command center, and if there is a risk of heatstroke or mental stress is measured and the risk is found to be high, the evacuation can be directed immediately.
3, medical capsule endoscopy robot
The capsule endoscope robot, which has the same shape as ordinary capsules, was developed by Shanghai Anhan Medical Technology Co., Ltd. and Anhan Optoelectronic Technology (Wuhan) Co., Ltd., and adopts the internationally-first remote capsule endoscope control system. Through this system, doctors can control the movement of the capsule robot in the stomach through software, change the capsule posture, and focus on the focus of the lesion according to the required angle, so as to achieve a comprehensive observation of the gastric mucosa and make a diagnosis. In this process, the image is wirelessly transmitted to the portable recorder, and after the data is exported, playback can be continued to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Compared with traditional gastroscopes, this has the advantages of more accurate data collection, no pain, and no cross-infection at one time. Up to now, a total of 321 patients volunteered to participate in the magnetic controlled capsule endoscopy clinical study. Through the preliminary analysis of the research results, it is proved that the remote capsule endoscope system is safe to use and the diagnostic accuracy rate is 92.8%, which improves the health check of the digestive tract and the early detection of digestive tract diseases, and reduces the late incidence of malignant digestive diseases. It is of great significance.
4, Da Vinci high-definition 3D imaging robot
The “Da Vinci” robot is called the Da Vinci High Definition 3D Imaging Robot Surgery System. Da Vinci surgical robot is the most advanced minimally invasive surgical system widely used in the world. It is suitable for minimally invasive surgery in general surgery, urology, cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery, gynecology, ENT, pediatric surgery. This is the only intelligent endoscopic minimally invasive surgery system in the world that has been approved by the FDA for surgical clinical treatment. Since 2000, it has been put into clinical application. China was first introduced by the Beijing People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in 2006. More than 500 years ago, Leonardo da Vinci designed the prototype of the robot. There are three major components: 1. Ergonomically designed doctor operating system; 2. 4-arm bedside robot system with 3 instrument arms and 1 lens arm; 3. High-definition 3D video imaging system
5, “Alpha” intelligent humanoid robot
In late September 2014, a football match at the Beijing Workers’ Stadium allowed a pair of robotic fans to take advantage of it, and they also had a meaningful name, “Alpha.” It is one of the robot products developed by Shenzhen Youbide Technology Co., Ltd., which is called “Alpha” inside the company. This robot has intelligent learning and learning ability such as editing action. It is an intelligent one. robot.
to sum up:
Robots are the result of multidisciplinary intersections, integrating advanced theories and techniques in the fields of kinematics and dynamics, mechanical design and manufacturing, computer hardware and software, control and sensors, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence. At the same time, it is another kind of typical automatic machine, which is the extension and development of special automatic machines and numerical control machines. At present, social needs and technological advances have continuously put forward new requirements for the development of robots to intelligent development.