Under normal circumstances, the RFID coding system has three standard systems, namely the ISO standard system, the EPC Global standard system and the Ubiquitous ID standard system. The ISO standards in the RFID field can be divided into the following four categories:
1) Technical standards (such as radio frequency identification technology, IC card standards, etc.)
2) Data content and coding standards (such as coding format, grammar standards, etc.)
3) Performance and conformance standards (such as test specifications)
4) Application standards (such as shipping labels, product packaging standards, etc.) EPC Global’s “Internet of Things” architecture consists of EPC encoding, EPC tags and readers, EPC middleware, ONS server and EPCIS server.
1) EPC is the only electronic code assigned to an item. Its bit length is usually 64 or 96 bits, and can be extended to 256 bits. For different applications, different encoding formats are specified, mainly storing enterprise codes, commodity codes and serial numbers. The latest GEN2 standard EPC code is compatible with a variety of codes.
2) The EPC middleware processes the read EPC code by filtering and fault tolerance, and then inputs it into the enterprise business system. It is compatible with readers of different manufacturers by defining a common interface (API) with the reader.
3) The ONS server parses according to the EPC encoding and user requirements to determine which EPCIS server the information related to the EPC encoding is stored on.
4) The EPCIS server stores and provides various information related to the EPC. This information is usually stored in PML format or in a relational database. uID Center’s ubiquitous identification technology architecture consists of four parts: ubiquitous identification code (ucode), information system server, ubiquitous communicator and ucode resolution server.
Ucode is a unique identifier that gives any physical object in the real world. It has ample capacity of 128 bits and can be extended to 256, 384 or 512 bits in 128-bit units. The biggest advantage of ucode is that it can accommodate the meta-encoding design of the existing coding system and is compatible with a variety of encodings. Ucode tags come in many forms, including barcodes, RF tags, smart cards, active chips, and more. The ubiquitous identification center classifies labels and sets up nine levels of different certification standards.
The information system server stores and provides various information related to ucode. The ucode parsing server determines that the ucode-related information is stored on that information system server.
The communication protocol of the ucode resolution server is ucodeRP and eTP, and eTP is an eTron (PKI) based password authentication communication protocol. The ubiquitous communicator is mainly composed of an IC tag, a tag reader and a wireless wide area communication device, and is used to send the read ucode to the ucode parsing server and obtain relevant information from the information system server.

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