A. Controller automation factory brain
The controller refers to the main device that changes the wiring of the main circuit or the control circuit in a predetermined order and changes the resistance value in the circuit to control the starting, speed regulation, braking and reversal of the motor. It consists of a program counter, an instruction register, an instruction decoder, a timing generator, and an operation controller. It is a “decision-making body” that issues commands, that is, completes the operation of coordinating and directing the entire computer system.
Commonly used controllers in automation plants include PLCs and industrial computers.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), which uses a type of programmable memory for its internal memory program, performing user-oriented instructions such as logic operations, sequence control, timing, counting, and arithmetic operations, and by digital or Analog input/output controls various types of machinery or production processes.
Industrial Personal Computer (IPC) is an industrial control computer. It is a general term for tools that use bus structure to detect and control production processes, electromechanical equipment and process equipment. Industrial computer has important computer attributes and features, such as computer CPU, hard disk, memory, peripherals and interfaces, and has an operating system, control network and protocol, computing power, and friendly human-machine interface. The products and technologies of the industrial control industry are very special and belong to the intermediate products. They are reliable, embedded and intelligent industrial computers for other industries.
2. Inverter automation factory energy saver
Variable-frequency drive (VFD) is a power control device that controls the AC motor by changing the working frequency of the motor by applying variable frequency technology and microelectronic technology. The frequency converter is mainly composed of rectification (AC to DC), filtering, inverter (DC to AC), braking unit, drive unit, and detection unit micro processing unit. The inverter adjusts the voltage and frequency of the output power supply by the internal IGBT breaking, and supplies the required power supply voltage according to the actual needs of the motor, thereby achieving the purpose of energy saving and speed regulation. In addition, the frequency converter has many protection functions. Such as overcurrent, overvoltage, overload protection and so on.
The inverter output is a PWM wave and contains many higher harmonics. The variable frequency power sensor performs AC sampling on the input voltage and current signals, and then passes the sampled values through a cable, optical fiber transmission system and a digital input frequency conversion power analyzer, and the digital input frequency conversion power analyzer performs voltage and current sampling values. The calculation can obtain parameters such as voltage RMS, current RMS, fundamental voltage, fundamental current, harmonic voltage, harmonic current, active power, fundamental power, and harmonic power.
As far as the domestic inverter market is concerned, the industry has summarized it as that the domestic enterprises of the general-purpose inverters account for more than 80% of the market share, and the fierce competition has led to a sharp decline in prices in 10 years. The high-performance market is still dominated by foreign brands. Will become the main direction of domestic inverter companies. It is a high-tech enterprise integrating intelligent R&D, production and sales in China. Production of industrial automation control manufacturers such as frequency converters, motor soft starters, products with heavy-duty design, strong overload capability, large starting and running capacity, perfect automatic detection, protection and control performance, can start and control any Types of heavy-duty load motors have been widely used in all industrial transmission fields such as metallurgy, mining, paper, chemical, building materials, machinery, electric power, and building systems.
A servomotor (servomotor
) is an engine that controls the operation of a mechanical component in a servo system, and is an auxiliary motor indirect transmission. The servo motor can control the speed and position accuracy very accurately, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object. The servo motor rotor speed is controlled by the input signal and can react quickly. It is used as an actuator in the automatic control system, and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant, high linearity, and starting voltage, which can receive the received electrical signal. Converted to an angular displacement or angular velocity output on the motor shaft. Divided into two major categories of DC and AC servo motor, its main feature is that when the signal voltage is zero, there is no rotation phenomenon, and the rotation speed decreases uniformly with the increase of torque.
A servo system (servomechanism) is an automatic control system that enables an output control amount of an object to follow an arbitrary change of an input target (or a given value). The servo is mainly positioned by pulse. It can be basically understood that when the servo motor receives one pulse, it will rotate the angle corresponding to one pulse to realize the displacement. Because the servo motor itself has the function of emitting pulses, the servo motor has every When an angle is rotated, a corresponding number of pulses are emitted, so that the pulse received by the servo motor forms an echo, or a closed loop, so that the system knows how many pulses are sent to the servo motor, and how many pulses are received at the same time. In this way, the rotation of the motor can be controlled very accurately, so that accurate positioning can be achieved, which can reach 0.001 mm. DC servo motors are divided into brushed and brushless motors. The brush motor has low cost, simple structure, large starting torque, wide speed regulation range, easy control, maintenance, but inconvenient maintenance (replacement of carbon brushes), electromagnetic interference, and environmental requirements. It can therefore be used in cost-sensitive general industrial and residential applications. The brushless motor is small in size, light in weight, large in output, fast in response, high in speed, small in inertia, smooth in rotation and stable in torque. The control is complex, and it is easy to realize intelligence. The electronic commutation mode is flexible, and can be square wave commutation or sine wave commutation. The motor is maintenance-free, has high efficiency, low operating temperature, low electromagnetic radiation and long life, and can be used in various environments.
AC servo motors are also brushless motors, which are divided into synchronous and asynchronous motors. At present, synchronous motors are generally used in motion control. It has a large power range and can achieve a large power. High inertia, the highest rotational speed is low, and it decreases rapidly as power increases. Therefore, it is suitable for applications with low speed and smooth operation.
The rotor inside the servo motor is a permanent magnet. The U/V/W three-phase electric motor controlled by the driver forms an electromagnetic field. The rotor rotates under the action of the magnetic field. At the same time, the encoder feedback signal from the motor is supplied to the driver. The driver according to the feedback value and target. The values are compared to adjust the angle at which the rotor rotates. The accuracy of the servo motor is determined by the accuracy (number of lines) of the encoder.
The difference between the AC servo motor and the brushless DC servo motor: AC servo is better because it is sine wave control and the torque ripple is small. The DC servo is a trapezoidal wave. But DC servo is simpler and cheaper.
4. Sensor automation factory feels the touch of outside information
is a detection device that can sense the measured information and can transform the sensed information into an electrical signal or other required form of information output to meet the information. Requirements for transmission, processing, storage, display, recording and control. It is the first step in achieving automatic detection and automatic control. In order to obtain information from the outside world, people must resort to the sensory organs.
And by relying on people’s own sensory organs, their functions in researching natural phenomena and laws and production activities are far from enough. To accommodate this situation, sensors are needed. Therefore, it can be said that the sensor is an extension of the human five senses, also known as electric five senses.
With the advent of the new technological revolution, the world has entered the information age. In the process of using information, the first thing to be solved is to obtain accurate and reliable information, and the sensor is the main way and means to obtain information in the natural and production fields. In modern industrial production, especially in automated production processes, various sensors are used to monitor and control the various parameters of the production process, to operate the equipment in a normal or optimal state, and to achieve the best quality of the product. Therefore, it can be said that without many excellent sensors, modern production will lose its foundation.
In the study of basic subjects, sensors have a prominent position. The development of modern science and technology has entered many new fields: for example, to observe the universe of thousands of light years on a macroscopic level, to observe the particle world as small as fm on the microscopic level, and to observe the evolution of celestial bodies for hundreds of thousands of years in the vertical direction. , short reaction to s. In addition, there have been various extreme technological studies that have an important role in deepening material understanding, exploring new energy sources, and new materials, such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, super-strong magnetic field, and ultra-weak magnetic field. Obviously, it is impossible to obtain information that is not directly accessible to human senses. The obstacles of many basic scientific research are firstly that there are difficulties in obtaining object information, and the emergence of some new mechanisms and high-sensitivity detection sensors often leads to breakthroughs in this field. The development of some sensors is often the pioneer of some marginal discipline development.
Sensors have long penetrated into extremely ubiquitous fields such as industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection, resource surveys, medical diagnostics, bioengineering, and even cultural relics protection. It is no exaggeration to say that from the vast space, to the vast ocean, to various complex engineering systems, almost every modern project can not be separated from a variety of sensors.
It can be seen that the important role of sensor technology in developing the economy and promoting social progress is very obvious. All countries in the world attach great importance to the development of this field. It is believed that in the near future, sensor technology will have a leap to reach a new level commensurate with its important position.
5. A firm performer of the robotic automation factory
A robot is a machine that automatically performs work. It can accept human command, run pre-programmed procedures, or act on principles that are based on artificial intelligence techniques. Its mission is to assist or replace the work of human work, such as production, construction, or dangerous work. The robot is generally composed of an actuator, a driving device, a detecting device and a control system, and a complex machine.
Industrial robots are generally used in factories. The most notable features of industrial robots are as follows: (1) Programmable. Further development of production automation is flexible start-up. Industrial robots can be reprogrammed as their working environment changes. Therefore, it can play a very good role in flexible manufacturing processes with small batches and multiple varieties with balanced and high efficiency. It is an important part of flexible manufacturing systems.
(2) Personification. Industrial robots have similar human walking, waist, arms, arms, wrists, and claws on the mechanical structure. There is a computer in control. In addition, intelligent industrial robots have many human-like “biosensors” such as skin contact sensors, force sensors, load sensors, vision sensors, acoustic sensors, and language functions. Sensors improve the ability of industrial robots to adapt to the surrounding environment.
(3) Universality. In addition to specially designed dedicated industrial robots, general industrial robots have better versatility when performing different tasks. For example, replacing industrial robot hand end operators (hands, tools, etc.) can perform different tasks.
(4) Industrial machinery technology involves a wide range of disciplines, which are summarized in the combination of mechanics and microelectronics – mechatronics technology. The third generation of intelligent robots not only have various sensors for acquiring external environmental information, but also have artificial intelligence such as memory ability, language understanding ability, image recognition ability, reasoning and judgment ability, etc. These are applications of microelectronic technology, especially computer technology. The application is closely related. Therefore, the development of robotics will certainly drive the development of other technologies. The development and application level of robotics can also verify the development level of a country’s science and technology and industrial technology. Today’s industrial robot technology is gradually developing towards the ability to walk, have multiple sensing capabilities, and have a strong adaptive ability to the working environment. Currently, the countries most influential in the development of global robotics are the United States and Japan. The United States is still in the leading position in the comprehensive research level of industrial robot technology, and the number of industrial robots produced in Japan ranks first in the world in terms of quantity and variety.
(1) Advanced industrial robots integrate advanced manufacturing technologies such as precision, flexibility, intelligence, software application development, etc., through the detection, control, optimization, scheduling, management and decision-making of the process, to increase production and improve quality. Reducing costs, reducing resource consumption and environmental pollution are the highest manifestations of industrial automation.
(2) Technology upgrade Industrial robots and automation equipments have the technical characteristics of fine manufacturing, fine processing and flexible production. It is a new generation of production tools that extend the physical strength and intelligence of human beings after power machinery and computers. An important means of digitization, automation, networking and intelligence.
(3) Wide range of applications Industrial robots and automation equipment are the key equipment in the production process. They can be used in manufacturing, installation, testing, logistics and other production processes, and are widely used in automobile and auto parts, engineering machinery, rail transit, Low-voltage electrical appliances, electric power, IC equipment, military, tobacco, finance, medicine, metallurgy, printing and publishing, and many other industries, the application field is very extensive.
(4) Technically integrated industrial robots and automated complete sets of technologies, which integrate and integrate multiple disciplines, covering a variety of technical fields, including industrial robot control technology, robot dynamics and simulation, robot construction finite element analysis, laser processing technology, Advanced manufacturing technologies such as modular programming, intelligent measurement, modeling and processing integration, factory automation and fine logistics, and comprehensive technology.
Six. Solenoid valve automation factory ribs
Electromagnetic valve (Electromagneticvalve) is an electromagnetically controlled industrial equipment. It is an automatic basic component used to control fluids. It is an actuator and is not limited to hydraulic and pneumatic. Used in industrial control systems to adjust the direction, flow, speed and other parameters of the media. The solenoid valve can be used with different circuits to achieve the desired control, while the precision and flexibility of the control can be guaranteed. There are many kinds of solenoid valves. Different solenoid valves play different roles in the control system. The most common ones are check valves, safety valves, directional control valves, speed control valves, etc.
There are closed chambers in the solenoid valve. There are through holes in different positions. Each hole is connected with different oil pipes. The middle part of the cavity is a piston. On both sides are two electromagnets. Which side of the magnet coil is energized? Side, by controlling the movement of the valve body to open or close different oil drain holes, and the oil inlet hole is normally open, the hydraulic oil will enter different oil drain pipes, and then the pressure of the oil pushes the piston of the oil cylinder, and the piston Drive the piston rod, and the piston rod drives the mechanical device. This controls the mechanical motion by controlling the current through and off of the electromagnet.
Solenoid valve selection should first follow the four principles of safety, reliability, applicability and economy, followed by six aspects of field conditions (ie pipeline parameters, fluid parameters, pressure parameters, electrical parameters, modes of operation, Special requirements are selected).
1. Select the solenoid valve according to the pipeline parameters: the diameter specification (ie DN), interface mode 1) determine the diameter (DN) size according to the inner diameter size or flow requirement of the pipeline;
2) Interface mode, generally >DN50 should choose flange interface, ≤DN50 can be freely selected according to user needs. 2. Select the solenoid valve according to the fluid parameters: material, temperature group
1) Corrosive fluid: Corrosion-resistant solenoid valve and all stainless steel should be used; edible ultra-clean fluid: food grade stainless steel solenoid valve should be used;
2) High temperature fluid: It is necessary to select a solenoid valve made of high temperature resistant electrical materials and sealing materials, and to select the type of piston structure;
3) Fluid state: large to a gaseous state, liquid or mixed state, especially when the diameter is larger than DN25, it must be distinguished;
4) Fluid viscosity: Usually it can be arbitrarily selected below 50cSt. If it exceeds this value, a high viscosity solenoid valve should be used. 3. Select the solenoid valve according to the pressure parameters: principle and structure
1) Nominal pressure: This parameter has the same meaning as other general-purpose valves, which is determined according to the nominal pressure of the pipeline; 2) Working pressure: If the working pressure is low, the direct-acting or step-by-step direct-acting principle must be used; the minimum working pressure When the difference is above 0.04Mpa, direct-acting, step-by-step direct-acting or pilot-operated can be used.
4, electrical selection: voltage specifications should be preferred to use AC220V, DC24 is more convenient.
5, according to the length of continuous working time to choose: normally closed, normally open, or sustainable power
1) When the solenoid valve needs to be opened for a long time, and the duration of the time is longer than the closing time, the normally open type should be used;
2) If the opening time is short or the opening and closing time is not much, then the normally closed type is selected;
3) However, some working conditions for safety protection, such as furnace and kiln flame monitoring, can not be selected for normal opening, and should be selected for long-term energization type.
6. Select auxiliary functions according to environmental requirements: explosion-proof, non-return, manual, waterproof fog, water shower, diving.
VII. Vision of industrial camera automation factory
Industrial cameras are a key component in machine vision systems. Their most essential function is to convert optical signals into ordered electrical signals from the AFT-808 compact HD industrial camera. Choosing the right camera is also an important part of the design of the machine vision system. The camera not only directly determines the image resolution, image quality, etc., but also directly relates to the operating mode of the whole system.
Industrial cameras are also commonly known as cameras. Compared to traditional civilian cameras (cameras), they have high image stability, high transmission capacity and high anti-interference ability. Most industrial cameras on the market are based on CCD (Charge Coupled Device) or CMOS. (ComplementaryMetalOxideSemiconductor) chip camera.
Industrial cameras are generally installed on the machine line instead of the human eye for measurement and judgment. The digital image capture target is converted into an image signal and transmitted to a dedicated image processing system. The image system performs various operations on these signals to extract the features of the target. Further, based on the result of the discrimination, the device operation at the site is controlled.
Eight. Instrumentation automation factory pulse
Instruments (instrumentation) Instruments are instruments or equipment used to detect, measure, observe, and calculate various physical quantities, material compositions, physical parameters, and the like. Vacuum leak detectors, pressure gauges, length measuring instruments, microscopes, multipliers, etc. are all instruments. Broadly speaking, instrumentation can also have functions such as automatic control, alarm, signal transmission and data processing, such as pneumatic adjustment instruments used in the automatic control of industrial production processes, and electric adjustment instruments, as well as distributed instrument control systems. Instrumentation.
Because of the improvement of microelectronics skills, instrumentation products are further integrated with microprocessors and PC skills, and the digitization and intelligence of instrumentation are progressing from time to time. Take the “DSPS” concept proposed by Texas Instruments as an example, taking the DSP chip as the center, and jointly improving the front-end mixed signal circuit, ASIC circuit, components and pioneering things to supply the entire system. New instruments such as VLSI new devices, surface mount technology (SMT), multi-layer circuit board printing, wafer planning integration (WSI) and multi-chip modules (MCM) are used in the instrumentation, CAD Computers such as CAM, CAPP, and CAT assist in the tactics, so that new skills such as multimedia skills, human-computer interaction, temperance, and artificial neuron collection have been widely used in modern instrumentation.
Various instruments and meters need to be applied in an automated factory. For example, measuring the pressure, liquid level, flow rate, temperature and other parameters required for some control processes requires relevant instrumentation.
IX. Automation software automation factory’s thinking automation software plays an important role in industrial systems. Its main role is to control the automation of production processes. The rapid development of industrial control systems in technology, industry and applications has gradually become highly integrated. Development, intelligence, and network development trends and characteristics. As the industrial control system is connected to the traditional IT management system and the Internet, the general control software, general hardware and general protocols are increasingly used internally. More common is the SCADA automation software system.
The so-called SCADA automation system (supervisorycontrolanddataacquisition) is what we call the data acquisition and monitoring system. It is mainly a system that is supported by computer technology and performs automatic control of scheduling of various production processes. At present, SCADA software not only plays a large role in data information collection, supervision and control in petroleum, chemical and other industries, but also widely used in the supervision of water conservancy and electric power industry. SCADA automation software can automatically and accurately monitor production for a long time without being supervised, and obtain effective information data from it, providing a powerful evaluation reference for regulatory administrators.
X. Control cabinet
The control cabinet also includes many kinds, including electric control cabinet, frequency conversion control cabinet, low voltage control cabinet, high voltage control cabinet, water pump control cabinet, power control cabinet, explosion-proof control cabinet, elevator control cabinet, PLC control cabinet, fire control cabinet, brick machine Control cabinets and more.
The automation plant involves electrical, frequency conversion, power supply, water pump and other control cabinets, and different control cabinets are selected according to different needs to achieve different control functions.