Under normal circumstances, there are three standard systems of RFID coding system, namely ISO standard system, EPC Global standard system and Ubiquitous ID standard system. The ISO standards in the RFID field can be divided into the following four categories:
1) Technical standards (such as radio frequency identification technology, IC card standards, etc.)
2) Data content and encoding standards (such as encoding format, syntax standards, etc.)
3) Performance and consistency standards (such as test specifications)
4) Application standards (such as shipping labels, product packaging standards, etc.): The “Internet of Things” architecture proposed by EPC Global consists of EPC coding, EPC tags and readers, EPC middleware, ONS servers, and EPCIS servers.
1) EPC is the only electronic code given to an item. Its bit length is usually 64 or 96 bits, and it can be extended to 256 bits. For different applications, different coding formats are stipulated, which mainly store the enterprise code, product code and serial number. The latest GEN2 standard EPC code is compatible with multiple codes.
2) The EPC middleware performs filtering and fault tolerance processing on the read EPC code and enters it into the business system of the enterprise. It achieves compatibility with readers from different manufacturers by defining a common interface (API) with the reader.
3) The ONS server parses the EPC code and user requirements to determine which EPCIS server the information related to the EPC code is stored on.
4) EPCIS server stores and provides various information related to EPC. This information is usually stored in PML format and can also be stored in a relational database. UID Center’s ubiquitous identification technology architecture consists of four parts: ubiquitous identification code (ucode), information system server, ubiquitous communicator, and ucode parsing server.
Codeucode is a unique identification code given to any physical object in the real world. It has ample capacity of 128 bits, and can be further expanded to 256, 384, or 512 bits in 128-bit units. The biggest advantage of ucode is that it can accommodate the existing encoding system’s meta-encoding design and can be compatible with multiple encodings. Ucode tags come in many forms, including barcodes, radio frequency tags, smart cards, and active chips. The ubiquitous identification center classifies labels and sets up 9 different levels of certification standards.
The information system server stores and provides various information related to ucode. The ucode analysis server determines which information related to ucode is stored on that information system server.
The communication protocols of ucode analysis server are ucodeRP and eTP, where eTP is a password authentication communication protocol based on eTron (PKI). The ubiquitous communicator is mainly composed of IC tags, tag readers and wireless wide area communication equipment, etc., and is used to send the read ucode to the ucode analysis server and obtain relevant information from the information system server.

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